Extracellular Vesicles Development Services

Various studies have shown that extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer multiple advantages over traditional synthetic carriers, opening up new frontiers for modern drug delivery. Protheragen-ING provides cutting-edge solutions for the design, development, and characterization of drug-loaded EVs.

As leaders in the field of nanomedicine, we specialize in harnessing the potential of EVs to deliver therapeutic payloads to target cells and tissues. With our expertise in EV biology, engineering, and drug-loading strategies, we are committed to providing innovative solutions that pave the way for advanced drug delivery systems.

About Drug-load Extracellular Vesicles

EVs are nano-sized particles surrounded by a protein-rich lipid bilayer. They are usually classified into the following categories based on their size and/or biogenesis:

Fig.1 Illustration of EV-mediated cell cross-talk, clearance mechanisms, and immune responses.Fig. 1 Illustration of EV-mediated cell cross-talk, clearance mechanisms, and immune responses. (Herrmann IK, et al. 2021)

They participate as important mediators of intercellular communication by carrying biological cargoes such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids between cells. Interactions between EVs and receptor cells have been shown to regulate (patho)physiological processes in vivo, including cellular homeostasis, infection propagation, cancer development, and cardiovascular disease.

Our Comprehensive Services

Protheragen-ING can assist you at every stage of the process, from initial design to final characterization. Our services include:

We employ state-of-the-art techniques to engineer and optimize extracellular vesicles for drug loading and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. By modifying EV cargo, surface ligands, and targeting moieties, we can tailor the vesicles to specific applications and desired therapeutic outcomes.

Our expertise in drug encapsulation allows us to efficiently load a wide range of therapeutic agents into extracellular vesicles. We employ both endogenous technologies, which leverage the inherent cargo-loading abilities of EVs, and exogenous methods that utilize various encapsulation strategies. This flexibility enables us to accommodate diverse drug types and optimize loading efficiency.

We utilize advanced analytical techniques to thoroughly characterize drug-loaded extracellular vesicles. Our comprehensive characterization services include size determination, morphology analysis, drug encapsulation efficiency, cargo release kinetics, surface marker profiling, and stability assessment.

Platform for Drug-Loaded EVs

We offer three distinct platforms for drug-loaded extracellular vesicles, each with its unique advantages and applications:

Natural extracellular vesicles, either derived from endogenous sources or obtained through genetic engineering, form the foundation of our drug delivery platform. These vesicles exhibit inherent biocompatibility, cellular targeting capabilities, and cargo-loading potential, making them versatile carriers for therapeutic agents.

Post-modification of natural EVs allows us to enhance their drug-loading and targeting capabilities. By introducing drugs or surface ligands onto the vesicle membrane, we can create hybrid vehicles that combine the advantages of EVs with additional functionalities. This approach enables precise control over cargo delivery and allows for targeted therapy.

Drawing inspiration from natural extracellular vesicles, we have developed EV-inspired liposomes as an alternative drug delivery platform. These liposomes mimic the characteristics of EVs, such as size, membrane composition, and surface markers, while offering improved stability and scalability.

Fig.2 EVs can be grouped on the basis of the origin of their constituents.Fig. 2 EVs can be grouped on the basis of the origin of their constituents. (Herrmann IK, et al. 2021)

Optional Drug Loading

We provide flexibility in drug loading by offering both endogenous technology and exogenous methods:

(1)Endogenous Technology

Leveraging the natural cargo-loading ability of extracellular vesicles, we employ endogenous technologies to encapsulate hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs within the vesicles. This approach takes advantage of the inherent membrane fusion and cargo recruitment mechanisms of EVs, ensuring efficient and controlled drug loading.

(2)Exogenous Technology

In cases where specific drug loading requirements cannot be achieved through endogenous technologies, we utilize exogenous methods. These strategies involve the modification of vesicles using techniques such as sonication, electroporation, or active loading methodologies. Exogenous methods allow for the encapsulation of a wide range of therapeutic agents, including small molecules, nucleic acids, and proteins.

Contact us today to discuss how we can assist you in advancing your drug-loaded extracellular vesicle projects.


  1. Herrmann IK, et al. (2021). "Extracellular Vesicles as A Next-generation Drug Delivery Platform." Nature Nanotechnology, 16, 748-759.


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