Nanocrystal Development Services

Refractory small molecules are often a barrier to translation due to their low solubility, low bioavailability, and formulation challenges. Nanocrystallization is a versatile approach to salvage refractory drugs with the added advantage of carrier-free delivery systems.

Protheragen-ING specializes in providing cutting-edge nanocrystal development services to help clients rescue hydrophobic drugs through nanocrystal formulation approaches. Depending on the disease, customized formulations can be administered via different routes, including oral, transdermal, and parenteral. This highlights the versatility of the nanocrystal drug platform. Our team of experienced scientists and engineers can assist you at every stage of the development process.

Pharmaceutical Nanocrystal Platform

Drug nanocrystals can be defined as pure solid particles with an average diameter <1 μm and crystalline characteristics. This platform provides an excellent opportunity to deliver hydrophobic drugs. It is unique in that the nanocrystals consist entirely of 100% drug or payload, thus eliminating the role of carrier assistance.

Fig.1 Nanocrystallization of poorly soluble drugs improves physicochemical stability and drug bioavailability.Fig. 1 Nanocrystallization of poorly soluble drugs improves physicochemical stability and drug bioavailability. (Jarvis M, et al. 2019)

Nanocrystal drug technology improves the solubility of hydrophobic drugs due to an increase in the surface area to volume ratio as well as an increase in the dissolution rate associated with the nano-size. The drug crystals are particularly suitable for the repair of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class II and IV drugs (low solubility drugs).

Nanocrystalline drug formulations have also been shown to be stable in suspensions, often referred to as nanocrystalline colloidal dispersions (NCDs), allowing for easy scale-up and manufacture of highly stable and marketable products.

Our Comprehensive Development Services

Our Nanocrystal Types

We can help develop a variety of nanocrystalline materials with different surface charges for drug delivery purposes.

Type of Nanocrystal Preclinical Model (In Vitro) Surface Charges
Magnetite HCT116 Neutral
SPIONSa HUVEC +9.4 mV, −8.3 mV
Cellulose‐FITC HEK 293 +3.9 mV, −46.4 mV, −48.7 mV
Cellulose‐RBITC Sf9 +9.0 mV, 8.7 mV, 8.6 mV
Cellulose KU‐7 0 mV to −55 mV
Cellulose MDCK, HeLa −40 mV to 100 mV
Caco-2, J774
Camptothecin Eahy926 −4.67 mV, −9.66 mV, −30.4 mV
Paclitaxel A549 +19.3 mV, −2.4 mV, −22.7 mV
Paclitaxel MCF-7 −2.73 mV, −15.9 mV, −16.6 mV
Hydroxyapatite MC3T3-E1 −12.5 mV, −23.3 mV
Hydroxyapatite MC3T3-E1 +48.6 mV, −11.4 mV, −28.3 mV
NC‐quantum dots Vero +40.52 mV, +36.2 mV, −48.12 mV
CdSe quantum NHBE cells −21 mV, −53.5 mV, −71.8 mV
Dot NC-MUA ligand
CdSe quantum NHBE cells −29.4 mV, −39 mV, −56 mV
Dot NC-MPA ligand
CdSe quantum NHBE cells +86.8 mV, 73.7 mV, 60.6 mV
Dot NC-AUT ligand
CdSe quantum NHBE cells +57.4 mV, 46.7 mV, 43.4 mV
Dot NC-CYST ligand

Production Methods of Nanocrystal Drugs

Top-down approaches: High‐pressure homogenization (HPH), and Media milling (MM)

Bottom-up approach: Precipitation

Combined approach

New microfluidic technique

Fig.2 Main nanocrystal production techniques.Fig. 2 Main nanocrystal production techniques. (Zingale E, et al. 2022)

Contact us today to discuss your nanocrystal development needs and discover how our services can accelerate your research, development, and innovation efforts. Let Protheragen-ING be your trusted partner in unlocking the potential of nanotechnology.


  1. Jarvis M, et al. (2019). "Nanocrystals: A Perspective on Translational Research and Clinical Studies." Bioeng Transl Med, 4(1): 5-16.
  2. Zingale E, et al. (2022). "Drug Nanocrystals: Focus on Brain Delivery from Therapeutic to Diagnostic Applications." Pharmaceutics, 14(4), 691.


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